domingo, 29 de octubre de 2006

Gota fría

La gota fría

Pocas expresiones meteorológicas gozan de la difusión alcanzada por la “gota fría” en la vertiente mediterránea española, por más que un tercio de siglo atrás resultase completamente desconocida. Es de notar, al respecto, que, con el precedente de las catastróficas inundaciones de 19 de octubre de 1973, ocasionadas, éstas sí, por un proceso de “gota fría”, se ha producido a lo largo de la fachada mediterránea española, desde la década de los ochenta, pródiga en riadas, una sinonimia errónea, y a todas luces improcedente, entre “gota fría” y aguacero copioso de gran intensidad horaria. Y en modo alguno es así: la presencia de una “gota de aire frío”, en la acepción prístina de Scherhag, creador del concepto a finales de los años treinta del siglo XX, no implica necesariamente el segundo, ni éste tiene, obligadamente, por causa a aquélla. Se trata, en suma, de un concepto, el de “gota de aire frío” que en España, y sobre todo en sus fachadas este y sureste, ha conocido, merced a los medios de comunicación, un singular arraigo entre el gran público, en serio detrimento de su precisión.

En esencia, una “gota de aire frío” consiste en una depresión fría marcada en las troposferas media y superior e inexistente o apenas dibujada en la inferior. Para que una “gota fría” origine un diluvio es menester la conjunción de una serie de condiciones. La aludida situación de 19 de octubre de 1973 combinó la práctica totalidad de agravantes: en superficie, aire muy inestable y húmedo, con largo recorrido sobre el mediterráneo y disparo en la vertical merced a la convección forzada impuesta por las alineaciones montañosas litorales y prelitorales, así como por la convergencia debida a la presencia de una pequeña y poca profunda borrasca en el mar de Alborán. El fuerte ascenso del aire, con génesis de cumulonimbos de 9-10 Km en la vertical, vino propiciado por el embolsamiento de aire frío, de -24ºC, a 5500 m de altitud, y la instalación de un mecanismo de divergencia a esos niveles. Las precipitaciones fueron fortísimas en las cuencas fluviales susodichas, sobresaliendo, entre las registradas, la localidad almeriense de Zugena, que recogió 600 mm en tan sólo tres horas, con la particularidad de que 420 mm cayeron entre las 13 y 14 horas de ese 19 de octubre.

Con todo, ha de destacarse que los mecanismos capaces de proyectar aire muy inestable y con elevada humedad específica hasta el límite de la troposfera son varios y no se limitan a los procesos de “gota fría”. Han de recordarse, cuando menos, depresiones aisladas en altitud, vaguadas retrógradas o meridianas, sistemas convectivos de mesoscala o determinados anafrentes fríos.

Información relacionada con Gota fría:

- Concepto gota fría
- Gota fría y diluvio
- Gota fría y diluvio (II)
- Catástrofes naturales y obras hidráulicas
- Catátrofes naturales: la sequía
- Catástrofes naturales: sequías
- Catástrofes naturales: Tornados
- Catástrofes naturales: El Niño
- Catástrofes naturales: Enso o Enos
- Catástrofes naturales: Oscilación Austral
- Catástrofes naturales: ciclones tropicales
- Catástrofes naturales: tsunamis
- Aguaceros otoñales mediterráneos

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