martes, 7 de noviembre de 2006

Catástrofes naturales: Enso o Enos

Catástrofes naturales: Enso o Enos

Esporádicamente, el desierto chileno-peruano, prototipo de región hiperárida, entre las más secas de la Tierra, conoce temperaturas superiores a las acostumbradas, lluvias torrenciales, fulminantes avenidas y pavorosas inundaciones, es decir, una amplia e intensa mudanza ambiental, con repercusiones mortíferas para la cadena trófica, de peces y aves acuáticas, cuyo primer eslabón es el planctón nutrido por la corriente de Humboldt. En dicha situación, “El Niño” ya no es tal, ni siquiera Hércules, más bien Neptuno y Eolo coligados para perturbar, no se sabe de qué manera y hasta dónde, mar y atmósfera.

El problema no se circunscribe a que las aguas cálidas excedan, con mucho, los límites de espacio y tiempo habituales, alcanzando Valparaíso (33º) y permaneciendo más de un año, con gravísimas secuelas biológicas y económicas; va mucho más allá. Una interacción compleja océano-atmósfera, cuyo funcionamiento y conexiones distan mucho de ser bien conocidas en su totalidad, desbordaría, hipotéticamente, el ámbito del Pacífico Tropical, para proyectarse sobre otros océanos y la zona de circulación general del oeste. Se trata, en suma, del fenómeno conocido por la sigla o acróstico “ENSO”, acuñada por Rasmusson y Carpenter, en 1982, a raíz, de un episodio muy intenso de esta naturaleza, para abreviar la expresión “El Niño”- Southern Oscillation; su traducción española, empleada en Iberoamérica, es la de ENOS, es decir, “El Niño” y la Oscilación del Sur.

Cuestión esencial es la de averiguar qué relación media entre el ENSO y otros sucesos meteorológicos extremos e insólitos acaecidos, simultáneamente, en áreas muy distantes de nuestro planeta. Algunas teleconexiones no ofrecen dudas, pero muchas de las barruntadas no pasan aún de meras conjeturas, pendientes de una verificación concluyente.

Información relacionada con Catástrofes naturales: Enso o Enos:

- Catástrofes naturales y obras hidráulicas
- Catátrofes naturales: la sequía
- Catástrofes naturales: sequías
- Catástrofes naturales: Tornados
- Catástrofes naturales: El Niño
- Catástrofes naturales: Oscilación Austral
- Catástrofes naturales: ciclones tropicales
- Catástrofes naturales: tsunamis
- Gota fría

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